Progress of mathematics has begun that the person began to use abstraction any of a high level. Simple abstraction - numbers
Comprehension of that two apples or two oranges, all of them distinctions, have something the general, namely, both hands of one
person, — borrow qualitative achievement of human thinking. Besides that ancient people have learned how to consider specific objects,
they also have understood how to calculate and abstract quantities, such, as time: days, seasons, years. From the elementary
naturally began to develop: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of numbers.
The further progress of mathematics leans on writing and skill to record number. Apparently, ancient people all over again expressed
quantity, drawing hyphens on the ground or cutting out them on wood. Ancient Inca, not having other system of writing, represented
and numerical data kept, using complex system of rope units. There was a set of various notations. The first known records of numbers
have been found in papyrus of Achmeth created by Egyptians of the Average empire (an epoch of history of Ancient Egypt between XXI
and XVII BCE). Indus civilization (existed in a valley of the river Indus in XXIII — XIX BCE) has developed the modern (!) decimal
notation including concept of zero.
Historically the basic mathematical disciplines have appeared under influence of an indispensability to conduct calculations in area
of commerce (progress of arithmetic
), at measurement of the grounds (occurrence of geometry
, that, by the way, in
translation from ancient-greek language means «measurement of the ground»), at calculation of time and for a prediction of the
astronomical phenomena (supervision over the Sun, the Moon and stars) leads to a birth of a calendar
later, for the decision of new problems of physics and natural sciences.
Already since times of Pythagoreans and Platon so-called "mathematical" sciences: arithmetics, music, geometry and astronomy were
considered as the sample of regular thinking and a preliminary step for studying philosophy. It is known about a worship of disciples
of legendary Pythagora's school for the uniform harmony reigning in a universe ("space"), music and number. There was a legend according
to which above an input in Plato's Academy the inscription has been placed: «Let None But Geometers Enter Here».
Let's make small retrospective journey in history of mathematics and we'll try to do justice to its great creators, since ancient
times and up to now.
From the Neanderthal man to Fikhtengolts*)
(The joke-motto of students of the Moscow University)
A n c i e n t t i m e s (VIII BCE - V CE)
M i d d l e a g e s (V - ÕVII CE)
N e w t i m e (1700 - 1918 years)
O u r t i m e (from 1918 year)
TO THE MEMORY OF ANDREY ALEKSANDROVICH GONCHAR
*) The Neanderthal man, the neanderthal person
(Latin Homo neanderthalensis
or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
– the fossil view of the person lived 140 – 24 thousand years ago, and which, according to modern scientific data, partially
because of assimilation with the Cro-Magnon man) is an ancestor of the modern person.
Grigory Mikhailovich (1888 – 1959) – the Russian and Soviet mathematician, the author of the widely known
three-volume textbook «The Rate of Differential and Integral calculus», till now considered one of the best textbooks on to